Regional programming and spatial differences: limitations and opportunities
Theoretical Issues of Regional Economics
The object of examination are methodological problems impairing the efficiency of regional programming as an instrument of state regional policy: existence of many relatively partial institutional models of the region that in principle are irreducible to each other and so left without due coordination in the design of regional programs; structural paradigm limitations of regional programs that affect feasibility of chosen objectives; strong mechanisms of self-stabilization (regional constants) versus indications of partial programs that are not in keeping with the overall direction of regional growth; relative uncertainty of federal/regional adjustments achieved in programs; imperfect criteria used to measure spatial specifics and regional disparities when setting priorities among program objectives.
V.Ie.Seliverstov, S.A. Suspitsy, V.I. Klistorin
A conception of budgetary management in a region
Regional Policy and Economic Problems of Federalism
Principles and methods aimed to improve budgetary management are examined in regard to the development of the RF fiscal system on the whole and fiscal federalism, in particular, that is conditions and prerequisites for reformation of the system of budgetary management, their objectives and mechanisms, including information, organization and methodical support for social, economic and financial planning in a region. Special attention is paid to financial independence of municipal units - participants of budgetary relations, and to rationale for stimulating grants to local budgets. Suggested are two variants of procedures for estimation of inter-government financial flows.
Evolution in center/region relations in Russia
The paper examines evolution in the RF center/region relations. Today they remain uncertain and unstable for lack of effective mechanisms for their conciliation. In the author's opinion, legal outlines and preconditions for liberal federalism have been already created, and in the beginning of the XXI century Russia can change its federal structure passing from asymmetric negotiating federation through asymmetric constitutional and then to symmetric constitutional federation.
Economic losses caused by administrative barriers to enterprise activity
Economic Issues of Regional Development
The Russian Government which is set to promote the economic growth has prepared a draft law aimed to ease the bureaucratic burden on enterprise activity. The paper examines corrupt administrative ways and the losses inflicted by them on public. By the author's estimate, the increase of retail prices alone which is the consequence of regular extortions of money from businesspeople costs the public 18 billion rubles per month at the average which exceeds revenues of consolidated budgets from income tax on physical persons collected in 2000.
A.A.Kin, N.N. Mikheeva
The economy of Russia's eastern enclave: stance and prospects
The assessments of the present economic and social standing of the Sakhalin oblast, a subject of the Federation that is an enclave in the extreme east of Russia characterize it as a problem region. The prospects of its growth depend largely on the hydrocarbon potential of the Sakhalin island shelf, competitive demand of the geographically adjacent nations for oil and gas and by the presence of a mechanism for attraction of investments (concession in the use of nature) for their development. The initial projects on the development of the shelf deposits have already begun to materialize. The economic development of the enclave will be also determined by the transit role of the Sakhalin island on the way from Japan to the countries of East Asia and Europe after the construction of tunnels (bridge crossing) the Hokkaido island - Sakhalin island and Sakhalin island - the mainland. In the long-run, after the year 2010 all this will permit to make the Sakhalin oblast a type of programmatically developing region with improved living standards and efficient economy.
Institutional framework and social base of rural new enterprise formation
Social Problems in Regional Development
The object of examination are sociological aspects of rural new enterprise formation: its institutional framework and social base as well as motives for taking up formal or informal enterprise activity. In this connection, some theoretical and methodological issues associated with the category "rural enterprise" and with classification of its types are discussed. Formal and informal forms of rural enterprise are examined in the context of agrarian transition - small agrarian business, peasant privately-run farms, individual household farming which makes major informal sector in the agrarian economy and the functioning of reorganized collective farms as agents for rural enterprise.
N.V.Bobyleva, B.V. Melentiev
Immediate priorities of interregional policy
Regional and Interregional Aspects in Structural and Investment Policy
The forecast of Russia's national economic growth across regions is considered on the basis of interregional model permitting to consolidate input-output regional forecasts and find out balanced deliveries of products among them. The forecast is based on the idea of resurrection, on a new technical basis, of spatial proportions of the pre-reform year 1992. The reasons for such a strategy are justified from social positions. Given are calculations of regional economic growth in Russia for 2001 provided the 1990 spatial proportions persist.
The role of energy resources of eastern regions in the solution of national economic problems
Eastern Energy Policy of Russia
The new situation in Russia after the demise of the USSR puts to the forefront, in the author's mind, the importance of the eastern strategic direction of foreign economic ties. The fuel and energy potential of eastern areas of the country, especially of Eastern Siberia and the Far East, can be taken as one of the crucial instruments for a deeper integration of Russia in the North-Eastern Asian ( NEA) nations. The jointly created advanced energy infrastructure will permit to reduce the costs of fuels, improve reliability of power and heat supply to consumers countries-partners, to promote environmental protection. To this end, it is required, in the author's opinion, to develop a comprehensive long-term strategy of energy interaction of Russia with NEA countries and mechanisms for its implementation. This strategy can be elaborated by joint effort of interested countries endorsed by the Russian state.
A.V.Lagerev, B.G. Saneev, V.N. Khanaeva
The role of Siberian energy resources in the national fuel and energy complex
The paper shows the role of Siberian energy resources in the fuel and energy complex of Russia. In the long run their role will still increase. This is due to the importance of energy factor for formation of a well coordinated economic policy of Russia's regions and increased importance of the energy of Siberia for expansion of foreign economic ties of the country. The authors give their assessment to the efficiency and scales of deliveries of energy resources to Russian regions and to export in accordance with the price policy of energy resources in the country.
Fuel and energy complex of Eastern Siberia and the Far East: prerequisites and external conditions
The paper analyzes possible external conditions that may influence the development of power production in the eastern regions of Russia over next two decades. The probable demand for energy resources within two scenarios of economic growth is assessed. Analyzed is possible range of fuel prices in Eastern Siberia and the Far East. In regard to the anticipated gas balance in North-Eastern Asian nations, its rational export from Russia is estimated drawing on gas prices existing in these countries.
G.V.Agafonov, M.K. Bandman, V.V. Vorobiova, V.Iu. Malov, B.G. Saneev
Territorial energy-production complexes as a prospective form of spatial organization of regional industrial forces
The object of discussion is formation of territorial energy production complexes (TEPC). The TEPC is stated to provide radical changes in the spatial organization of TEC (both in general and in its individual elements), to make the spatial structure of regional industrial forces more rational and, ultimately, to improve in each region its social and economic situation. The benefits of TEPC as an organizational form for solving the "energy" tasks are shown on the case of Eastern Siberia and the Far East. The objective character of TEPC formation in these regions is shown by the analysis of their prerequisites, specifics, tasks and of key social and economic problems of their development that have arisen in the result of their changed paradigm in the market-based environment.
Region as a new element of regional policy in Hungary
International Experience of Regional Science, Regional Policy and Spatial Development
The transition to market relations in Hungary has riddled regional differentiation that existed in this country before 1990. The region is now the object of management of spatial development. This is supported by the law about spatial development passed on in Hungary in 1996. The paper examines the crucial element of the law, namely the status of the region as a new form of management and programming of the spatial development.
A new handbook on regional economics (A.S. Novosiolov)