Region as a centre of nascent competitive advantage
Theoretical Issues of Regional Economics
The paper describes a methodological approach to competitiveness of a region. The regional setting is viewed as a market envelope, and each individual factor displays its competitive advantage (the competitive region's position) in terms of rates of labor productivity growth on enterprises located in the region. Means are suggested at the levels of the Federation, large federal districts and federal subjects that can improve region's competitiveness.
V.I.Suslov, Iu.S. Iershov, N.M. Ibraguimov, L.V. Melnikova
Interregional economic relations in the years of reforms: status quo and prospects
Regional Policy and Economic Issues of Federalism
Examined are regional trends in production, consumption and investments as well as reasons underlying increased regional disparities in per capita production and consumption in 1990-2000. On the basis of interregional inter-industry model, estimated are development perspectives of large selected regions under different versions of economic growth and, in particular, the opportunities of eastern regions of the country for speeded growth.
A.A.Kin, E.B. Kibalov
A comprehensive assessment of Sakhalin bonds with Russia vs. the rest of the world
Economic Issues of Regional Development
The study of the relationships of the Sakhalin region with the inland part of the country and with neighboring states was based on statistical materials, sociological survey and expert judgements. It has shown that the ties with the homeland are weakening while those with foreign countries are strengthening, and this leads to "creeping" estrangement of the enclave from the inland areas of the country.
Formation of competition environment in the Russian oil sector: regional aspects
The paper examines the present problems in the formation of competition environment in the oil sector of Russia. The entrenchment of vertically integrated oil companies increases their monopoly at the regional level and deteriorates the positions of small non-integrated companies. Objectively, it goes counter regional interests as the sphere of development of available resources is narrowed. By using mechanisms of taxation and licensing, regional governments should devise steps toward stimulation of small business, especially in development of not very profitable deposits with hard extracting conditions.
A comparative assessment of living standards in Siberia: counter estimations
Compared are official norms of survival between the Siberian federal district and other federal districts of the Russian Federation. The comparison of income and official survival minimum, average between the Ural and Far East regions, permits to see that actually per capita income in Siberia is over 40% below the average for the two neighboring federal districts. Over a half of this difference is due to underestimated survival minimum calculated by the currently used official procedure where household expenditures on warm clothes and shoes and on heating and hot water supply are not taken in full. The variable of this underestimation can be used to assess the amount of rent exported from Siberia without compensation.
Iu.Sh.Blum, L.V. Mashkina, O.V. Mashkina
The problem of choice out of forest policy alternatives
Regional and Interregional Aspects Of Structural and Investment Policy
Considered are tasks and objectives of forest policy in a context of radically changed ownership relationships, unstable economic growth and enormous harm inflicted by the "shadow" sector activity on the forest stock quality and use. A brief discussion is given to the forest policy of countries with different shares of private ownership of forests, namely Canada, Finland and the USA. The case of the USA with its wide gamut of forest ownership types is considered in a more detail, and its experience in stable forest use both in private and federal (public) forests is examined. In conclusion, the Russian approach to funding forest preservation measures is commented on.
Iu.I.Bernadsky, O.V. Tereshchenko
Financial-industrial integration as a factor spurring capital investment in the real sector of the economy.
For the implementation of investment potential and development of financial-industrial integration, crucial are relations between the credit-financial institutions, mainly the commercial banks, and the industrial units. The financial-industrial groups can play a vital role in spurring the investments in the real sector of the economy. The FIGs can become a basis for improved stability of regional economies and for creation of favourable conditions in the development of the national real sector.
B.G.Saneev, M.M. Mandelbaum, L.A. Platonov, A.M. Kler, S.P. Popov, A.D. Sokolov, N.I. Ilkevich, V.P. Gukov, V.P. Larionov, N.A Petrov
Oil and gas industry development in the east of Russia
The Eastern Energy Policy of Russia
The authors characterize the present state of oil and natural gas supply to consumers in Eastern Siberia and the Far East. Assessed are the reserves of hydrocarbons of the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf. The strategy in development of oil and gas industry at the east of Russia is considered according to the prospects of economic growth in these regions and within the fuel and energy balance. It also includes the development of the transport infrastructure to meet the domestic demand in hydrocarbons and export their surplus to North-East Asian countries.
A.M.Kler, B.G. Saneev, A.D. Sokolov, E.A. Tiurina
Comparative efficiency of long-distance transportation of national gas and coal
The authors compare different combinations of processing technologies and long distance transportation of natural gas and coals from the fields of the eastern areas of the country. In the result of optimization estimations of different variants of power transmission, the spheres of their effective use are outlined. It is concluded that the variant of large-scale production of methanol and DME with their subsequent long-distance pipe-lining can be viewed as an alternative to long distance transmission of large volumes of gas.
L.S.Beliaeva, Ie.D. Volkova, N.I. Voropai, A.Iu. Ognev, S.V. Podkovalnikov, V.A. Saveliev, V.V. Selifanov, V.V. Trufanov
Integration of power generation of Russia's eastern regions in the space of North-Eastern Asian countries
The object of the paper is electric power generation in the eastern areas of Russia in the period extending to 2020. Examined are issues of Russia's integration in a unified electric power production space of North-Eastern Asia.
I.Iu.Ivanova, S.P.Popov, T.F. Tuguzova
The role of renewable sources of energy and of energy supply to the eastern regions of the country.
The problem of the use of renewable natural resources in some areas of Eastern Siberia and the Far East is discussed in the context of the current fuel and power situation of isolated consumers, and directions in which power engineering systems based on the use of renewable natural power resources can be developed are shown. This will allow to diminish the consumption of imported fuel and to solve the problem of power supply to isolated consumers. Given are possible scales in the use of generators working on renewable resources and the savings that can be obtained by supplanting the organic fuel.
Institutional prerequisites for support of the problem areas of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Foreign Experience of Regional Science, Regional Policy and Regional Development
The government of the Republic of Kazakhstan has listed in its provision depressed and lagging areas, although so far no methodological approaches to their definition have been developed. The analysis of the economy of these areas shows a certain positive trends in their industrial production, although four out of 26 depressed and lagging areas displayed in 2000 a fall of industrial and agricultural output against the previous year while on other economic variables these regions are far behind the rest of the country territories.
The author gives definitions to lagging and depressed regions and methodological recommendations for their recognition to provide a basis for taking measures that would bring improvements in their social and economic situation.
A cluster approach to food industry management formation in the Republic of Kazakhstan
The object of discussion is the food industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the years of economic transformation and the strategy of its development based of the formation of a cluster. The cluster is supposed to include agriculture, food machine building, production of packing and the state system of standards, metrology and certification. The proper management of food industry can be provided through optimal relationship between state regulation, economic management and local control. On a national basis, the state regulation and the economic management should be directed at the formation of the cluster of food industry.
Energy-saving in the Novosibirsk region: potential and reality
The Activity of Executive and Legislative Bodies of Authority in Siberian Regions
In the current situation the energy saving is the alternative to increased consumption of energy resources and, thus, a high priority in energy policy. The Novosibirsk region has appropriate legal and institutional provisions. A special attention in the paper is paid to the potential of energy saving and to directions of its practical use. A methodical approach to measure its efficiency given as well as estimations on the use of heat pumps are given. On the case of energy-intensive industrial enterprises the efficiency of the improved charters of internal power supply to consumers is shown.