V.V.Kuleshov, V.D. Marshak
The economy of federal districts: financial aspect
Regional Policy and Economic Issues of Federalism
A model of money circulation is used to estimate two variants of investment policy in federal districts. In the first (basic) variant the investment policy is estimated entirely by maximum efficiency in the use of the resources of the financial sector. The second variant takes into account the state participation (at the level of federal districts) in the formation and use of investment funds .
Siberia and the Far East: common problems and common features of economic growth
Regional Economic Development
The similarity of many problems between Siberia and the Far East and their extraordinary importance for Russia's future predetermine a need for a unified regional policy in this macro region. The imperative of this policy must be: the efficient development of Siberia-the-Far-East as a part of the indivisible Russia. The unified state policy in this macro region does not mean a territorial unification but a combination of common approaches and internal regional diversity. At the phase of economic recovery, the dynamics of the Siberian and Far Eastern regions must correspond with the GDP growth. This, however, is not the case in many Siberian and Far Eastern areas, which is obviously the result of their isolation from the national market not compensated by involvement in the world market, while to a drop of GDP they are more sensitive than other areas of the country. Most Siberian and Far Eastern regions have a positive net balance of the generated and used GDP (US$11.1 billion in 1999). The money proceeds from sales of goods and services equating this balance drop out from the regional economic turnover, are not used in consumption and accumulation. Most Siberian and the Far Eastern regions are financial donors, but donors of the world economy instead of the national economy, and the total value of this balance is comparable with the capital export from Russia. A precondition for the economic growth in this macro region is to diminish this financial outflow; its persistence will be still more negatively reflected on the per capita income, migration turnover, investment opportunities and competitiveness of most economic sectors.
Development of mineral resources in the northern resource regions
The paper focuses on the acute problems faced by northern resource regions where production of mineral resources is the basis of their social and economic development. Part of these problems are those arising from the establishment of a new system of management with state ownership of mineral resources and payments for their use.
Consumer cooperation in the Republic of Buryatia: problems and prospects
In the situation of the general systemic crisis, the consumer cooperation of the Republic of Buryatia is shown to be a socially oriented system providing the region's inhabitants with consumer goods. The examination of its problems and their causes leads to the conclusion about a need for a future strategy, and the structure and main tenets of this strategy are outlined. On this basis, the key factors in the development of the consumer cooperative societies of Buryatia to 2005 are considered.
I.A.Vizhina, V.N. Kharitonova
Budgetary security of the Yamalo-Nenets municipalities
Comprehensive Issues of the Development of the North Of Western Siberia
The examination of own budget revenues of the Yamalo-Nenets municipalities reveals inter-government budget problems hindering the fiscal process and deteriorating the stability of local budgets. A new procedure for evaluation of the own fiscal potential of municipalities on the basis of medium-term indicators of economic security in their functioning is presented.
Estimation of the investments required for the environmental security of the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous district
The paper examines the environmental situation in the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous district and environmental management in this gas and oil region. Its ecological load is forecast to 2030. For the implementation of the required pollution abatement technologies, a new procedure for indirect estimation of the required investments as well as sources of financing are presented.
Ye.V.Lyubimova, V.N. Churashev
Power-and-heat generation and energy supply to the Yamalo-Nenets consumers
Energy supply of the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous district is characterised by insufficient security and high tariffs because of the absence of large own energy sources and underdevelopment of system-forming and distribution grids. The authors recommend for the period to 2015 to expedite the building of the Urengoi high power generation station and small power plants. This plan presupposes maximum use of local gas resources and advanced gas-turbine and power-steam technologies as well as connection of the local Salekhard-Labytnangi-Harp energy area to central electricity utilities. The given estimations show that the region can specialise on the production of electric power and even export it to the European areas.
D.D.Mangatayeva, Ye.V. Chimitova
Social and demographic situation in the Republic of Buryatia
During the 1971-2001 period great demographic changes occurred in the Republic of Buryatia when it passed from the extended to simple type of population reproduction. The paper analyses the reasons underlying these natural and mechanical shifts, family and ethnical composition of the population. A sociological survey of the residents of seven districts of the republic and of the city of Ulan-Ude showed a deep evolution of the demographic behavioural patterns and a transformation of the social structure.
V.I.Klistorin, D.S. Sander
Two approaches to regional investment activity
Regional and Interregional Aspects of Structural and Investment Policy
The paper examines two main approaches to the analysis, estimation and forecasting of investment activity in the Russian regions, i.e., the investment climate approach and regional reproduction process approach. The empirical testing of estimations made within both approaches show that, due to the specific features of the Russian economy, the investors tend to ignore the investment potential of the regions and, the more so, the regional investment risks. For this reason, the investment climate approach is little used in forecasting and in recommendations given to regional administrations. At present the reproduction approach is more practicable, and it makes the focus of this paper.
V.I.Suslov, M.S. Osadchii
Leasing: theory and practice
For the study of the most significant leasing problems, such as leasing and loan, leasing and purchase, use is made of a theory of contracts. The analysis of the main categories of the leasing and its features in the transitional economy performed in this study reveals the difficulties that impede the leasing to grow.
Russian coke coals: production and consumption outlooks
The paper presents the quantitative prospects of the coal industry and its sub-industry - coke extraction - taking into account the capacity of the coke coal market, trends in steel and iron industry and sale opportunities of the Russian coal. Notwithstanding Russia's large reserves of coke coals permitting to supply the chemical-recovery enterprises with furnace charge for a long period of time, some of their valuable brands will stay in deficit. Its reduction is possible by reconstructing the present mine enterprises in coal basins, by building new ones in Kuzbas and South-Yakut basins and by improving the enrichment technology. For further growth of output and competitiveness of coke coals, expansion of the transport capabilities and of sea port admissions is required.
Problems of integration of the post-socialist Central Asian states
Foreign Experience in Regional Science, Regional Policy and Regional Development
The state of integration of the post-socialist Central Asian nations, i.e., Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrguizstan and Tajikistan, is analysed in the context of their political interests and history of integration processes. Possible models of social and economic development from which these nations might make their choice, and the characteristics of these models as well as points for integration and cooperation are presented. However, the level of integration is low. It is no more than a shapeless structure not yet providing cooperation in the economy, communications, social fields, etc. The nations are moving in divergent directions.
A concert action of all level authorities as a crucial precondition for regional development
The Activity of Executive and Legislative Bodies
The paper analyses the transformation of the Russian regional policy in a concrete region - the Republic of Bashkortostan. The author contends that for this republic a priority in the regional policy, apart from improvement of living standards, should be its self-development as a basis for effective functioning in the national and world economic space. The main condition for fulfilment of this paradigm must be, according to the author, a closer interaction among the authorities of all levels. This statement is discussed in social, production, territorial and organisational terms.