Potentialities and limitations of spatial transformations in the economy
Theoretical Issues of Regional Economics
Spatial transformations in the distribution of economic activity are understood as changes in the RF regional (clear of national) stable trends. The changes are limited to persistence of generalizing regional characteristics, long-run maintenance of major investors’ preferences, vague social-economic policy of the government, etc. Spatial distribution of the economic activity is estimated and analyzed using regional summary indicators accumulating in themselves the variety of particular social-economic indicators that are supplemented with expert estimates for conditions not captured by official statistics.
Linkage between economic growth and poverty across the regions
Economic Issues in Regional Development
Reduction of economic inequality and war on poverty remain important tasks for the state regulation in Russia. The paper presents the results of the study of linkage between inequality and economic growth in the regions. Shown are both the direct effects (the influence of economic growth on inequality) and back effects – the influence of inequality on economic growth. The empirical analysis has shown that the effect of “inequality trap” was observed when deficiency of economic resources prevents from effective war on poverty which, in its turn, checks the development of the human potential and curtails the economic growth. The dynamics of poverty was also affected by intra-regional inequality which combined the results of macro and sub-federal levels.
Russia's export of see food products to Japan: difference between statistics and reality
Regional Development and International Cooperation
The paper evaluates the scope of the Russian export of sea food products, including illegal, to Japan and shows the cause for discrepancy between Russia and Japan in the statistical data on the trade of sea products. It is the lack of transparency in the Japanese-Russian trade in these products.
V.A. Kriukov, R.G. Zemtsov, A.N. Tokarev
Assistance to small innovative companies as a priority in the oil and gas sector at the regional level
Regional and Interregional Aspects of Structural and Investment policies
The paper considers the problems faced in the creation and functioning of small and mid-sized oil and gas companies. It is argued that their classification into small and mid-sized business must be based not on formal criteria as is done today, but on the specifics of their hydrocarbon reserves. Then the problem of their creation will be put into a more general framework of the regulation in the use of mineral resources. Considering the increased number of ever smaller and difficult fields being involved in the development and their variety, the role of regions has to be much more active. At the same time, the concentration of powers in the sphere of regulation of the use of mineral resources at the federal level is in downright contrast with the above mentioned requirement.
Innovative activity at the research centers of the Siberian Division of the RAS
The paper analyzes the opinions about the opportunities for creation and development of the innovative climate in the country expressed by scientists from the Tomsk, Omsk, Krasnoyarsk and Kemerovo research centres (SB RAS) in a sociological poll carried out in 2002-2003. The scientists spoke about the innovative research and causes for the containment of their introduction and diffusion: financial shortages, too weak tax remissions insufficient to organize the innovative activity, problems with intellectual property rights. The analysis has shown possible forms in which the researchers may contribute to practical applications of their scientific results as well as the role of regional innovation policy.
Yu.Sh. Blum, G.P. Gvozdeva, Ye.S. Gvozdeva, L.V. Mashkina, O.V. Mashkina
Forest villages in the forest-poor areas of Western Siberia in new economic environment
Social Issues of Regional Development
The authors emphasize a special role of state regulation in the revival of the potential of forestry. The proper paternalist policy must include valid forestry legislation and, for forest-poor areas, where due to a sharp fall of domestic demand and lack of enterprises producing high value products, it is very difficult to organize self-paid activity, at this state additional governmental financing of the industry is required. However, main effort must be made by forestry and logging enterprises themselves.
V.N. Churashev, G.V. Chernova
Development of coal heat power in Siberia
Energy Strategy in Eastern Areas
The paper examines the tendencies in the fuel balance of heat power-generation stations and boiler-houses in Siberia which is shown to be different from that in the European part of the country. Within Siberia itself the conditions of fuel supply are also different. An excessive proportion of coal consumption by heat power plants in Siberia and relatively high proportion of mazut in Eastern Siberia are responsible for the high load on the environment. The analysis of the national energy predictions shows that in Siberia coal will remain the basic form of heat power fuel in the long run but to reduce the pollution it is necessary to use new low-input, environment friendly technologies of coal burning. According to the comprehensive assessment of innovative advanced research at the Siberian Branch of the RAS made by the authors, it is the use of the system of plasma kindling and lighting of fuel on heat power plants and systems of ultra-fine coal power in “large” and “small” power generation that may become to first step towards the required updating of the present technologies and toward withdrawal of mazut from the Siberian fuel balance.
Generation and consumption of electric power in Siberia: predictions and tendencies
The analysis is devoted to predictive calculations of electric power consumption over the transition period. The dynamics of production and consumption of electric power in the nation, Siberian Federal District, Western Siberian regions and the structure of consumed power across the regions are considered. The inconstancy of the regional consumption is largely determined by its extraction component and the lowest stage of the process that is accompanied by respective boost of transport flows. The agriculture undergoes a general fall in the consumption of electric power.
V.I. Suslov, A.V. Korzhubayev, V.Yu. Malov
Transport of Siberia: problems and prospects
Regional Strategy in Development of Transport
The analysis of the present situation in the transport complex of Siberia has shown that it fulfils its principal task which is to maintain the integrity of the social and economic space. The priorities in transport development are set and explained. Within 10-15 years ahead the transport system of the macro region will be not enough to meet the real demand of the national economy, but in order to create the motivation for accelerated development of Siberia and the Far East it must – and this is one of strategic tasks – outstrip this demand. A distinctive feature in the development of transport systems in the east of the country is that the transport network has crossroads of latitudinal and meridian mains, in the nodes of which large multi-modal transport-logistical centres are created. In the discussion of the linkage between economy and transport it is argued that in the development of the eastern areas of Russia the economic aspect of the strategy is dominant, while the intercontinental transit and increased transport openness is the evidence that the Russian economy is becoming part of the world economy and promotes access to it. It will be emphasized that it is just economic development that requires to develop the transport. The economic probability to create the basic transport network of the Asian Russia in this century is estimated.
Baikal-Amur railway: the present and the future
A strategic approach to the assessment of the Bam-Amur railway profitability is proposed. The problem of increased BAM loading has internal and external aspects. Within the internal aspect three basic strategies aimed to revive the program of economic development of the BAM zone are considered. In the external aspect, these strategies are supplemented with three variants of BAM “uncorking” to the north-south and west-east. For the implementation of these strategies a brief description of alternative organization mechanisms is given.
The theory of diffuse sets in the evaluation of large investment regional-transport projects
The project to bind the island of Sakhalin with the inland is here a case on which to use the theory of diffuse sets in the evaluation of the significance of large regional transport projects for steady development of the neighbouring areas. This approach is found relevant under uncertainty of the implementation, at the stage of investment intentions. It does not replace the development of conventional technical justifications but precedes it. In contrast to rigid delimitation into methods based on objective or subjective probabilities to allow for the factor of uncertainty, this approach demonstrates a possibility of compromise. These methods are meant to use expert opinions about consequences (outcomes) from different project alternatives, which makes it possible to avoid extremely wrong decisions at very early stages.
A.A. Gert, A.A. Ogly, V.N. Kharitonova, I.A.Vizhina, O.G. Nemova, P.N.Melnikov, P.A. Petrov
The eastern track of oil pipelines: comparative economic efficiency of variants
The paper examines four variants of the oil track from the south of the Siberian platform to the APR countries in the 2005-2025 period. The efficiency of the northern variant was estimated using the dynamic simulation model of the financial-economic evaluation of the oil pipelines projects developed at the IEIE SB RAS. The benefits of the Nizhniaya Poima – Verkhniechonsky – Chayandinsky – Lensk – Tynda – Skovorodino – Nakhodka variant answering the interests of the project participants and providing maximum involvement of the oil resources of the Siberian platform into the economic turnover are shown. A procedure of estimation of the multiplicative effects of the influence of the route variants of the Eastern corridor of oil mains on the economic growth in the Krasnoyarsk krai, Irkutsk region and Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is given.
Amalgamation and merging of enterprises in the Siberian Federal District
The paper examines integration processes of amalgamation and merging of enterprises in the economy of the Siberian Federal District (SFD). This region has its specific features but they are not exclusive. The given cases demonstrate that Siberian organizations, first, do not undertake actions to protect their regional interests against merging, especially hostile actions; and, second, that the capital of central absorbing companies is substantially lesser than the foreign capital coming to Moscow, which tells itself on the development of the industrial potential of the SFD region.
Estimation of non-equilibrium in the development of economics of regional agro-industrial complex
The paper proves the system of indices and characteristics which makes possible to reveal differences in economic and social development of regional agro-industrial complexes (AIC) in Russia. It offers a procedure of analysis and estimation of non-equilibrium state of regional AIC including a description of logical pattern, structure and content of initial information. One may use estimates of interregional differences in AIC when developing a mechanism of correction of AIC both of Russia and its regions thus ensuring its non-equilibrium stability.
The Canadian experience with positive programs to improve the labour market situation of indigenous peoples
Russian-Canadian Program «The Exchange of Experience in Managing the Development of Northern Territories»
The paper reviews the results of the analysis of the demographic situation of the Canadian indigenous peoples: their number is growing rapidly, life expectancy is drawing closer to the Canadian norm, the living conditions are improving. Income disparity between indigenous and non-indigenous people is slowly reducing, while income gaps within the indigenous population are growing. More indigenous people are completing postsecondary training, for every 100 non-indigenous people aged 25 to 44 with a postsecondary diploma or degree, there are 71 indigenous people. Efforts are made towards economic self-sufficiency for all aboriginal people. In the decades after the Second World War many hundreds of individual training programs were launched to make it easier for indigenous people in Canada to participate successfully in the wage economy. The Canadian experience may provide tools and contribute to improving the labour market situation for the small-size peoples of the North of Russia.
Regions of Russia in the first half-year of 2004.
Regions of Russia: Figures and Facts
Ural in global economy