Dynamic model for technological basis of regional economy
Theoretical Issues of Regional Economics
The author presents his concept for technological basis of regional economy considered as a set of major industrial products produced in this region. The author shows the role which technological systems play in the innovation development in regions; describes theoretical grounds of how such systems emerge, progress and disappear; and also models their dynamics in the form of ordinary nonlinear differential expressions. The case-study for the Novosibirsk Oblast displays feasibility of the innovation development express-analysis made by identifying a set of technological bases which compose regional economy.
L.S. Markov, M.A. Yagolnitzer
Meso-economic systems: issues of typology
The paper identifies major types of meso-economic systems. Due to the multi-dimensional approaches to the cluster classification, we can find out basic peculiarities of knowledge and technologies applied and industrial and management structures in the different types of clusters; can understand the ways of how firms could contact industrial and technological environments and can identify interrelations between knowledge characteristics and an economic growth as well. The technique proposed by the authors allows classifying different meso-economic systems according to their diversity, their functional, institutional and social links and the nature of the innovation and technological processes applied.
Financial decentralization and economic growth in regions of the Russian Federation
Regional Policy and Economic Issues of Federalism
Our analysis of the statistical data over 2000-2005 shows positive correlation between centralization of fiscal expenditures and GDP dynamics in most units of the Russian Federation. Nevertheless, not any increase in federal subsidies stimulates an economic growth because, among others factors, regional fiscal investments rather than centralized ones influence more positively on a speed of a regional growth. To increase the part of federal fiscal money transferred to conditional investment projects in regions could be considered an optimal strategy of intergovernmental relations from the point of view of higher economic growth rates.
V.I. Klistorin, T.V. Sumskaya
Local governance institutions: their role in the development of federative relations
The paper analyses different variants of the distribution of responsibilities between governments and the issues concerning enlargement of financial base for local governments. We consider local government here as a political and socio-economic base of any contemporary country. The tendency to decentralize government’s responsibilities treated as one of basic instruments to make government institutions work more efficient leads to the situation when more and more diversified financial instruments have been applied to support municipal units. The most prospecting instruments are those concerning effective coordination of inter-municipal programs.
About rhetorical character of Russian regional studies and regional policy
Economic Issues of Regional Development in Russia
The paper shows present practice of applying some assessments to validate the efficiency of spatial location of economy in Russia which can not be regarded appropriate but are very popular with validating different and even contrary point of views. The author stresses that such practice has tendency to grow. Why such assessments are being applied is the question which the author analyses and concludes that such practice does exist because the rhetorically formulated objectives and measures of regional policies substitute for a proper scientific approach, and this phenomenon is directly connected with the tendency to concentrate more and more financial and management instruments of regional policies in the federal center.
Actors of knowledge economy: roles of middle class
Social Issues of Regional Development
In instable institutional environment, prototypes of future institutions are different actors’ practices and the ways of realization and coordination of their role expectations. The paper demonstrates the application of the role analysis methodology to describe how the creators of high-technology products act, that allows studying the process of building institutions and the perspectives in knowledge economy. An empirical base of this study is the depth interviews conducted in 2007. We discovered that intra-role conflicts had been observed in the activity of scientists. Our analysis of the data obtained also showed the ways of how to minimize such conflicts, to reduce barriers and limits with which scientists had faced in commercialization of their works; and the analysis showed as well that models of their conducting business in promoting high-technology products were standard and adequate but needed more active behavior of consumers as units of the knowledge economy.
G.V. Bobylev, A.V. Kuznetsov, N.V. Gorbacheva.
How to use regional innovation potential: conditions and factors
Regional and Interregional Aspects of Structural and Investment Policy
The factors which slow down or stimulate the development and promotion of innovations into regional economies and the factors which stimulate the development of regional economies are considered by the authors as those influencing on macro-, meso- and micro-levels. The proposed approach has been applied to the analysis of factors influencing on the implementation of the Power Electronics Program. The authors conclude that in ideal situation, any innovation policy should be system-based and targeted, i.e. should contribute to neutralizing negative factors, and therefore slowing down ones, on all said levels and should promote relative stimulating factors.
D.V. Suslov, Yu.S. Serdyukova, A.V. Starkov
Issues of building technological parks (Academgorodok, Novosibirsk City as a sample)
The paper considers the features of how technopark structures form and develop in conditions of Russian economy. We revealed that management mechanisms being insufficiently elaborated and the lack of institutionalized procedures for assessing the efficiency of units within such innovation systems lower the effective function of the innovation systems. The authors analyze the approaches to the management mechanisms applied in Academgorodok, Novosibirsk City in the sphere of elaboration and management of development programs for innovation enterprises and renting the real estates and equipment or services, and conclude that basic elements of effective management in the Technological Park, Academgorodok, Novosibirsk City have been already built as the program objectives, goals and undertakings proved to be in balance with all the units of the Technological Park. Nevertheless, the development of a monitoring system is required to trace the dynamics of the situation in the Technological Park and to react properly.
Banking services in Russian regions
Analysis of an expanding banking system in Russian regions shows a fragmentary character of present banking market; only 15% of Russian regions have a relatively advanced banking system. In most regions, the fact that a corporate sector is financed by a private one has been observed. In some regions, there are structural disparities between credit and deposit operations. Our regressional relationship analysis shows that availability of banks in a region correlates with deposit operations, and shows no correlation with credit ones. This means that not all banks conduct credit retailing contrary to deposit operations. In all regions except some, the problem outstanding debts of corporate and retail sectors could be regarded tolerable. The individuals’ outstanding debts do depend on portfolio size; as for legal entities, such correlation has not been revealed.
I.A. Vizhina, Yu.B. Zolotovskaya
Developing the Kovyktinsky field: ecological and economic after-effect
Ecological and Economic Issues of Regional Development
The development of the Kovyktinsk Gas-condensate Field in Irkutsk Oblast would have positive ecological impact on the region because the provision regional industries and population with gas supply would promote the substitution dry natural gas for power-generating coal. At the same time, exploitation of this field will immediately affect the environment and mostly the regions where the field are to be developed. To find a compromise – how to minimize negative impact on the environment and to reduce imbalanced use of all natural resources – is a major task for governments, public ecological organizations and gas-operators. The way to solve the task is to promote applications of the technologies providing minimal ecological risks.
N.M. Zhuravel, G.V. Chernova
Energy-saving technologies: assessment of ecological and economic efficiency
The paper considers the assessment techniques for ecological damages from energy-saving technologies such as the assessment of aborted damage for ecologic and economic environments according to an advanced technique; the market tools and mechanisms provided by Kyoto Protocol and the assessment of ecologic and economic effects according to the world’s standards. The authors show how the assessments of project efficiency can differ if more ecological factors are included in analysis, and conclude that we need to improve present techniques for assessment of the ecologic and economic efficiency of projects and to include world’s standards and best practices.
Discussing ecological consequences of project implementation: role of public opinion
The paper summarizes the foreign and home practices of how communities participate in discussion of projects of ecological importance. The author shows identical and distinguishing features of public participatory procedures in different countries. The author also presents some real examples of how public opinion does influence on the assessment of projects in Russian regions, and the role of new legal instruments which they play to improve national legislation in the sphere of public participatory decision making. The ways of how world’s best practices in this field could be applied in Russian practice are discussed in the article.
A.A. Lukyanetz, V.G. Potar, A.G. Chernov, A.A. Shumsky
Tools for assessment of use of local fuel-and-energy resources
Local Self-government and Municipal Development
The paper analyzes how energy balances as the management tools could be applied by municipal units, and shows why their introduction into municipality’s practice is impeded. The authors offer a set of indications of how effectively municipalities use their energy resources, and discuss the issues of energy security and whether or how national requirements are applicable on the municipal level. The paper also presents the examples of present and future balances of a municipal unit and examples of energy effectiveness and security as well as their visualized presentation.
V.A. Kryukov, A.N. Tokarev
Transforming the relations between Aboriginal peoples and resource-users: from assertion of rights to modern participatory forms
Russia-Canada Program on «Sharing Best Practices in Northern Governance with SFD»
One of the bases for transfer from a paternalistic policy to partner relations is creation of a participatory system of decision-making for Aboriginal peoples in the filed of natural resource management, including their engagement in provision the companies – natural resource-users - and their contractors with services of consuming and industrial character. For this purpose, mobilization of Aboriginal organizations concerning the protection of their interests is required as well, that would be a background for transformation of particular Aboriginal rights into their actual socio-economic benefits through different forms of such participatory system. The paper shows what possible ways and scenarios of the substitution the participatory system for separate economic agreements could be in order to provide wider involvement of Aboriginal peoples in natural resources projects which are planning to be implemented on the territory where they traditionally live. This also assumes the creation of special institutions including Aboriginal development corporations.
Modeling and programming complex in spatial economic studies