Russian version

¹ 2-2014

Basic Research on Spatial Development within the Framework of the Programs Launched by the Presidium of the RAS
V.N.Leksin (leksinvn Reality of Regions and Regional Research
The paper analyzes the mains problems of a consistently-functioning state. Economic stagnation and abnormally high dependence on the global economy, reducing level of habitation in geopolitically important areas of a country, historic settlement system crisis, distortion of the structure and decline in skilled labor reserves, as well as low chances to implement regional and local initiatives—all the arguments are examined in the framework of internal misbalance of natural resource, economic, infrastructural, socio-demographic, and administrative potentials of local territories. Moreover, we present how subjects of conceptual studies on the described phenomena and their number do not correspond with their public prominence because of their results not requested by the government authorities
Key words: stability, balance, level of habitation in areas, settlement system, labor reserves, economic self-reliance, local markets, government authorities

Russian North and Arctic in the Context of Global Challenges of the XXI century
V.À.Ivanov ( Reindeer Breeding in the Arctic Subregion: Current State and Directions for the Development
The paper discusses the role and a specific character of reindeer breeding as the main sector of the traditional northern economy. It examines advantages and drawbacks of different management systems and demonstrates the dynamics of changes and the proportion of domestic reindeer population in the federal subjects of the North. We study the reindeer breeding before the reforms and in the market period. The article further analyzes the target program of reindeer breeding development in the Komi Republic. It defines issues of economic development in the region due to the absence of a federal act on reindeer breeding, unregulated interregional connections aimed at pastures monitoring. As a conclusion, we propose directions on how to develop forest reindeer breeding: by integrated product processing and solving social problems of reindeer breeders
Key words: the Komi Republic, reindeer breeding, reindeer management systems, environmental conditions, social problems of reindeer breeders

Regional Policy and Economic Issues of Federalism
V.V.Shmat ( Myths of Regional Politics: Siberian “Separatism”
The paper states the fact that the Federal Center is attempting to frame bonds with regions into vertical power structure. The bureaucratic politics model and the monopolized Russian business lead to actual decline of competence and financial base of regional self-development, which casts doubt on the fundamental principles of federalism. First and foremost, this situation infringes upon interests of Siberia and Far East, but in the end it contradicts with nationwide Russian ones. The Center may be concerned with a fictitious threat of “Siberian separatism” which has a long history. Still, nowadays, for Russia to retain eastern territories it does not need an administrative resource but an actual economic integration and reindustrialization of Siberia. It is only economically developed Siberia that is able to “increase Russia’s might”
Key words: Siberia, Far East, region, socio-economic development, separatism, regionalism, federalism, integration

Economic Issues of Regional Development
L.S.Shekhovtseva ( The Level of Economic Development of a Region: Scientific Basis to the Concept of its Evaluation
The paper analyzes and defines features of economic measurements, the structure and types of economic measuring instruments. We establish that in the economic theory and practice limitation of indicators of economic growth is overcome at transition to measurement of level of economic development. We develop a concept to measure the level of economic development of a region on the basis of subject-functional, systematic, organizational and strategic approaches. The article describes the methodology of how to measure regional development level through an example of an integrated estimation of competitiveness of a region. We discuss possibilities of rating, time and structural analyses
Key words: regional development level, economic measurements, economic growth and development, concept, competitiveness of a region

E.B. Kibalov(, A.A. Kin ( Introducing Uncertainty into the Estimation of Effectiveness of Large Regional Transport Projects: Structural-Institutional Approach
The paper presents that standard methods for estimating effectiveness of capital investment projects are deterministic. Uncertainty and risks are introduced and declared but not described with proper terminology. As far as large capital investment projects are concerned, of which implementation influences the structure and price standards not only on departmental or regional markets but also on national ones, underestimation of “external effects”, for instance, could lead to costly errors. To resolve this issue, we propose to utilize a strategy games model where contrasting scenarios are generated using models from a family of an optimization interregional–interindustrial model. The article also shows the results of experimental calculations and an example of how to use the described model
Key words: large capital investment projects, regional transport systems, uncertainty, risks, efficiency, estimations, strategy games, economic and mathematic model of MMM

Social Issues of Regional Development
S.V.Soboleva ( Demographic Situation in Siberia against the Background of All-Russian Trends
The article examines the demographic situation in Siberia and Russia which has improved since 2006, after a long period of depopulation: birth rate is growing, life expectancy is rising, and natural increase has become positive. These are the first successful steps towards overcoming the demographic crisis. Still, birth rate, although positively increasing, is far from that of the late 1980s. According to the data for 2011, it makes only 75% of population replacement. We define the main obstacles preventing future childbirth figures from growing and underline that in order to further overcome the demographic crisis, a family with 3–4 children should become a goal for demographic policy in Russia. Such a family should acquire the largest economic and moral support from the government and the society
Key words: Russia, Siberian Federal District, demographic policy, depopulation, demographic potential, life expectancy, natural increase, desired and expected parity

T.M. Maleva(, A.O. Tyndik ( The Low Birth Rate Trap in Moscow: Highly-Educated Childfrees?
The article analyzes actual and normative reproductive behavior of the Muscovites. It demonstrates that high birth rate in Moscow is largely determined by women of reproductive age who are migrating from province. Having used data of sociologic study entitled Moscow and the Muscovites (“Moskva i moskvichi”), we define the character of relation between education and birth rate, as well as how the figures differ in Moscow and in Russia in whole. The paper discusses a childfree phenomenon which is spreading widely in Moscow. It is the growing women’s education level that influences the most on declining birth rate, while family income practically does not affect the number of children. The more the proportion of childless families is, the less judgmental the society becomes. Constant delay in giving birth is the result of shift in priorities towards education and career fraught with childlessness. Moscow with its demographic development and a focus on new social behavior patterns, largely following those of western cities, can be considered as an innovative region that eventually translates its practices to other major Russian cities. An expanding childfree phenomenon in Russian megalopolises which lack such a strong migration inflow may lead to aggravation of low birth rate problems. We give recommendations on further socio-demographic development of the region
Key words: Moscow, demographic situation, birth rate, empiric data, education, childfree phenomenon

I.I. Korel (, L.V. Korel ( Modern-Day Contrasts of Inter-Regional Migration in Russia
The paper studies an interregional competition for a unique scarce resource, namely human capital assets, which is unfolding in the Russian migration space. It is visualized within a model of a current seven-cluster structure of migration in regions of Russia which uses ten classic indicators of migration. The database comprises material from Russian Federal State Statistics Service. We show that our cluster structure of migration in regions, although slightly “patched-up” in its geography, has profound and stable migration contrasts and dissonances. In general, it proves a dangerous migration trend of the last three decades which still remains in the second decade of the XXI century—migration flows are highly center-oriented; it leaves eastern and northern frontiers of the country deserted and does not react to any attempts to rectify the situation in the framework of the Concept of State Migration Policy of the Russian Federation till 2025 as approved by the President. We confirm that the Russian migration space is “self-organized” and has hierarchical structure. The Cluster No. 1, pole of attraction for migration flows, stands on top and accumulates population from the borders. The cluster of “migration catastrophe” (Cluster No. VII) is the lowest; it destabilizes economic and sociocultural environment creating catastrophically large migration loss
Key words: internal interregional migration, cluster analysis, indicators of migration, clusters of migration catastrophe, concept of state migration policy, migration contrasts, hierarchy

Ya.A.Leshchenko ( On the Approaches to Studying the Affective Component of Society’s Living Standards
The paper considers approaches to the living standards assessment from the critical point of view based on the objective, subjective and complex patterns. We indicate the principal differences between the notions and the attributive characteristics of the individual living standards and population’s (society’s) living standards categories. Based on these differences, the assessment methodology for the phenomenon is insufficiently developed on the population level. We suggest approaches and criteria of differential assessment for an affective component of living standards in regional societies using specific socio-demographic indicators. As a result of this assessment we find the levels of psychosocial (spiritual) ill-being
Key words: society’s living standards, affective component, spiritual ill-being, sociodemographic indicators

Regional and Interregional Aspects of Structural and Investment Policy
K.I.Grasmik ( Social Networking Service as a Factor for Developing Regional Innovative Systems in Russia
The paper shows that the main component and the basis of an innovative system is an innovative network, i.e. a set of social relations between participants of the innovation process. We analyzed data on the current innovation activities, interaction between participants of the innovation process, support measures for innovation projects in Tomsk Oblast and Krasnodar Krai. We discover that Tomsk Oblast is more active in terms of innovation and its support measures for innovation are more diverse and ambitious. The region now holds a range of venture-capital investors. In Krasnodar Krai the support system is more center-oriented, which results into less structured innovative network
Key words: innovation, innovative system, innovative network, social relation, innovative territories

Environmental and Economic Issues of Regional Development
I.Yu., Blam(, Kamila Borsekova (, Katarina Petrikova ( Evolution of Local Environmental Economic Associations: Industrial Symbiosis
Industrial symbiosis is a voluntary cooperation of enterprises that aims to achieve collective benefits by leveraging each other’s wastes or by-products and sharing services and utilities. This paper investigates the cooperation and processes realized within the industrial networks based on the principles of industrial symbiosis in Denmark, Russia and Slovakia. The examples refer the wide range of benefits that this kind of cooperation brings. The identified cases contribute to the sustainable development of regions where they are localized
Key words: industrial symbiosis, regional sustainable development, eco-industrial park, waste management

Activity of Executive and Legislative Political Bodies in Russian Regions
A.R.Valeev ( Risk Management at the Budget Planning Subjects in the Republic of Tatarstan
The paper examines Russian experience in risk management while planning and implementing budget spending. We analyze the current risk management practice in the framework of federal and regional target programs. We present the example of the Republic of Tatarstan in organizing preventive maintenance within the budget planning subjects including executing the work of internal control systems for major budget holders, summarizing specific violations and deficiencies, identifying corruption risks in fiscal environment
Key words: risks, risk management, risk assessment, the Republic of Tatarstan, budget spending efficiency, preventive control, internal control system

Issues of Local Government and Municipal Development
B.S. Zhikharevich(, T.K. Pribyshin( Testing Approaches to Studying the Content of Municipal Strategies
The paper presents results of a pilot study of 100 documents on long-term strategic planning of municipal units. We characterize the texts basing on a devised codifier which describes economic and social parts of strategies, infrastructure development issues and implementation of a strategy. We pay special attention to “ambitious” character of a document and priorities towards “flagship projects”. As a result of cluster analysis, we have defined three following dense groups of strategies: ambitious realistic (good), unambitious realistic and ambitious unrealistic (populist) ones. The big number of strategies of the first cluster (54) allows us to say that Russian municipal strategies are of considerably high quality. Through the content analysis of the documents using lexical markers, we prove that the strategies are thematically differentiated and find out that a series of topics is assigned by the federal authorities
Key words: municipal strategic planning, management, clusters, strategies, content analysis

Economics of Enteprises
V.V. Titov(, I.V.Tsomaeva ( Coordination of Strategic and Tactical Management at an Industrial Enterprise under Uncertainty of Product Demand
The paper presents the methodological approach that designs a production program at enterprises of batch mechanical engineering, instrument making for the current planning period affected by the uncertainty of the demand. Simultaneously, such tactical plans should be coordinated with strategic indicators of business development. This condition can be fulfilled by resolving a problem of stochastic programming. The article provides a simplified solution to this complex issue, which is still closer to corporate planning practices
Key words: production program design, batch mechanical engineering, uncertainty of the demand, coordination of tactical and strategic performance

Regions of Russia: Figures and Facts
N.S.Martyshenko ( Tourist Outflow from Primorsky Krai
The paper shows that the rate of outbound tourism in Primorsky Krai significantly surpasses that of inbound one and differs from the average figures for the country. Statistics are insufficient to provide a complete picture of outbound tourism in the region in question, so we use data gathered from monitoring tourist outflows from Primorsky Krai based on opinion polling. Analysis of answers given to open-ended questions was conducted with an author’s method for data processing designed for tourism services consumers’ mass opinion polls. In the paper we show structural trends for tourist outflows from the region. We define issues that hinder strategic planning for domestic tourism development and managing demand on domestic tourism products
Key words: Primorsky Krai, outbound tourism, monitoring, tourism services, opinion polling

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