Russian version

¹ 3-2014

Basic Research on Spatial Development within the Framework of the Programs Launched by the Presidium of the RAS
S.A.Suspitsin ( ) Measurements in the Space of Regional Indicators: Methodology, Methods, Results
The paper discusses what approaches to forming development indicators for a multi-regional system of the Russian Federation provide accurate interregional comparisons. We propose methods to identify stable topological structures in the space of regional indicators, to build an ordered system of regional clusters and to analyze inter-cluster connections. The article formulates principles and methods of elaborating a genetic scenario which depicts how the Russian multi-regional system develops basing on the evolutionary approach. It calculates development vectors of forecasting indicators for regions of the Russian Federation till 2030. We define the regularity with which the cloud of regional indicators changes its configuration, capacity and content of clusters. We also suggest an approach to analyze spatial transformations of the Russian economy under the macroeconomic conditions of its modernization scenario
Key words: regional indicators, multi-regional system, stable topological structures, development scenarios

Russian North and Arctic in the Context of Global Challenges of the XXI century
V.N. Kharitonova ( ), I.A. Vizhina ( ) Innovative Economic Modernization of the Arctic Territory in Eastern Yakutia: Problems and Solutions
The analysis carried out in the paper has identified what major social and economic development problems are faced by the Arctic territory in Eastern Yakutia. The article defines the ways of how to draw the settlements of this area out of a major economic depression within the context of the state strategy of social and economic development for the Russia’s Arctic territories till 2020. We suggest a comprehensive territorial megaproject as an approach of how to work out a strategy to modernize the economy of a region. This paper illustrates the fact that a megaproject of this kind could be used as a tool in strategic analysis of resource limitations, as well as for time and space coordination of social and regional projects concerning transport and energy infrastructure with investment projects and plans of mining companies
Key words: the Arctic territory, Eastern Yakutia, diagnosis, life support systems, comprehensive territorial megaproject, state coordination of investing activities, public–private partnership

Regional Policy and Economic Issues of Federalism
T.V.Sumskaya ( ) Main Trends of Subfederal Fiscal Policy
The paper defines conditions necessary for a financial base of a local government, proposes a technique to analyze the structure, fiscal sustainability and efficiency of subfederal fiscal policy examined on the basis of fiscal data on Novosibirsk Oblast for the period 2006–2012. We have assessed the structure of the local budget in Novosibirsk Oblast and calculated characteristics of inhomogeneity of fiscal indicators before and after regional budget allocation. The obtained results indicate that inhomogeneity of budget revenues reduces after municipal governments are funded from the regional budget. We identify territories influencing significantly the differentiation indices taking into account funds from a superior budget. Having assessed the how effective the stimuli increase tax revenues of local budget, we can draw a conclusion that the used stimuli work towards saving and developing tax potential of municipal institutions. In general, subfederal fiscal policy is focused on optimizing local revenue base foundation and execution
Key words: local authorities, local budget, tax and non-tax revenues of local budget, fiscal capacity equalization, subfederal fiscal policy

Economic Issues of Regional Development
Ye.À.Kolomak ( Evolution of the Spatial Distribution of Economic Activities in Russia
The main sources of the article are the idea of multiplicity of spatial equilibria and the hypothesis of agglomeration economies. Data was analyzed with indices of spatial concentration and economic assessments. This paper shows that the evolution of the spatial distribution of economic activities in Russia unfolds in parallel with its concentration. We are observing how spatial development model changes to the one which has higher concentration of economic activities and, consequently, higher level of interregional inhomogeneity. There is no outstanding redistribution of production factors and flow of output from the east to the west of Russia. We draw a conclusion that Russian regional policy aimed at supporting ‘points of growth’ and ‘territories of rapid development’ should be seen as ineffective for the moment. Due to agglomeration mechanisms, growing territories are able to improve their dynamics of development independently, without government support. Currently, agglomeration process takes place the length and breadth of Russia, and it is only slightly slower in the eastern part. Under the conditions where interregional competition dominates cooperation, spatial externalities appear to be negative, and government regulation intended to support dynamic economies may lead to further differentiation. Regional policy designed to narrow gaps among regions is a more reasonable solution, which is also supported by restrictions caused by the federal form of government and threat of separatism
Key words: economic activity, spatial model, empirical estimation, agglomeration processes, regional policy, interregional inhomogeneity

N.G. Yushkova ( ) Strategic directions in planning spatial development of regional systems and imperatives of state administration
The paper analyzes social and economic subfederal development plans. It discovers peculiar analogical spatial projections: forms in which socio-economic processes are reproduced and variable-based correlations; it also assesses their inhomogeneity and the degree of concentration. The results of the analysis are stated in tabular analytical schemes made for every subject of the Russian Federation, which allowed to suggest using identification adaptiveness codes as a descriptive tool for the said schemes. Their relations and further synthesis give an opportunity to use them as a ground for social and economic forecasting of how the federal subjects of Russia will develop
Key words: imperative, regional policy, state administration, social and economic development, adaptiveness, adaptiveness code, adaptiveness index

G.F.Balakina ( Formation Features of Social and Economic Development Strategies in the Context of Modernization
The paper defines an economic category named receptivity of a region to modernization. We identify and classify its relation to categories of regional development: competitiveness, effectiveness and safety. The article presents the basic methods to assess the level of receptivity of a region to modernization by analyzing constituent parts of this category, and gives an author’s assessment of its level in a number of Russian regions. We arrive at a conclusion that the stated assessment should be used as a basis for determining ways to improve strategic government in regions, and suggest using the specificities of development strategies formation in regions as ways to adapt process of its elaboration to conditions of modernization of regional social and economic systems
Key words: region, strategy of social and economic development, receptivity to modernization, modernization, innovation

V.I.Nefyodkin ( ) Resource Corporate Factor in Regions: Assessment and Effect Distribution
Operations of major corporations and how they communicate with the federal and regional authorities are becoming more and more significant factor for social and economic development. Russian major resource corporations are growing into being powerful in production and redistribution of added values within the current system of intergovernmental fiscal relations and accepted practice to use ‘internal corporate tools’. Significance of the ‘corporate factor’ in various regions can be indirectly estimated with the concentration of production. Potential effects related to the said factor can be described in a model which differentiates ‘extraterritorial’ effects from the ‘local’ ones
Key words: major corporations, regions, local content, effect distribution, quantitative estimation

Social Issues of Regional Development
A.N.Bolnitskaya ( Region as an Object and a Subject of Social Policy
Using the example of Yakutia, the paper studies a region as a subject and an object of social policy. We discover a bond between these two constituent parts of social policy and trends of centralization and decentralization in the context of the federal form of government. The article analyzes the main development trends, specificities of regional social policy and social policy of a beneficiary region in Russia. It is shown how imperfect federal and social standards are, those that define directions of regional social policy and its effectiveness. The paper also presents characteristics and principles of how elements of social protection for regions should develop being a key direction of state social policy which aims to even out social inequality in regions. Having analyzed development trends of social policy, we substantiate the directions of regional social policy implementation
Key words: region, social policy, regional social policy, region as a subject and an object of social policy, social protection.

T.Yu.Cherkashina ( Differentiation of the Russian Population within Healthcare Service Accessibility: Importance of Individual and Territorial Factors
An extended definition of the term ‘national well-being’ suggests comparing extents to which various social groups have access to social services. Basing on an integrated observation of living conditions, this paper gives assessment on healthcare service accessibility. The need to obtain the service is the most important factor for addressing to a medical institution; other characteristics of an individual status are secondary ones. At the same time, territorial differences in the way people request medical assistance are defined rather by the status of a settlement then by regional differentiation. We show how reasons to reject healthcare vary for territorial groups and categories of patients, where the main ones are due to the way the health system functions. In our calculations we use data on economic situation and population health monitoring: it has identified the dynamics of addressing to medical institutions for the latest decade and changes in population of patients for various segments of the health system
Key words: national well-being, social inequality, inequality in healthcare service access, healthcare service, social service accessibility, assessment of institutional reformation consequences

Regional and Interregional Aspects of Structural and Investment Policy
S.D.Ageeva ( Peculiarities of Applying the Public–private Partnership Technique in Exploration of Natural Resources
The paper examines the ways of how to apply the public–private partnership technique (PPP) in exploration of Siberian natural resources. We summarize the successful PPP projects carried out in populated regions in Russia and analyze possibilities to expand the method in order to create non-productive and infrastructural objects in mineral resources sector. The article shows main risks arising while exploring natural resources using the PPP technique. We conclude that it is necessary to preserve the uniqueness principle for a project in the sphere of mineral resources exploration, as well as the uniqueness principle when drafting the PPP documents. It is shown that due to violation of the basic PPP principles (such as competitiveness when choosing a partner, transparency in project implementation, accessibility of information on whether project implementation is efficient), it is impossible to improve the efficiency of government expenditure in mineral resources sector
Key words: regions of natural resources exploration, public–private partnership, mineral resources sector, Investment fund of the Russian Federation, infrastructure bonds

V.A. Stennikov (, I.V. Postnikov (, T.V. Dobrovolskaya ( Developmental Trends of Energy and Heat Supply in Irkutsk Oblast
Basing on a systematic approach, the paper analyzes consumption and production of electric and thermal energy in Irkutsk Oblast and shows relations between economy and energy development. Contrast scenarios form prospective fuel and energy balances of the region. We have chosen the model describing how the regional energy development sector should preferably function and have made medium-term quantitative estimation for development levels of energy and heat consumption and the coating structure of electric charge. The article identifies deficit of electric power and proposes ways to reduce it. We consider whether it is reasonable to shift coal-fired stations to a combined (gas and vapor) cycle. The paper also present economic assessment of activities which aim to develop energy and heat supply systems in Irkutsk Oblast. We substantiate long-term development trends in the energy sector
Key words: region, electric and thermal energy, consumption and production, fuel and energy balance, methods of medium-term forecasting

Environmental and Economic Issues of Regional Development
O.P.Burmatova ( Environmental Strategy of Social and Economic Development of a Region
The article describes the basic methodological and methodical aspects involved in the development of a strategy for environmental protection in a subfederal region such as Novosibirsk Oblast. A logical scheme shows how strategies for nature conservation are elaborated in this region. We propose a system of environmental measures determined by a need to alleviate or prevent potential environmental problems. We also forecast how air pollution in Novosibirsk Oblast from most common contaminants in stationary pollution sources will be spreading till 2025, taking into account environmental protection measures. The results of the study suggest making a more informed choice on main directions for nature conservation in the said region, which helps to avoid possible threats and make maximum use of available resources. Everything said above assists in defining environmental priorities and elaborating a conservation strategy as a part of a strategy for social and economic development of a region as a whole
Key words: environmental policy, conservation strategy, environmental priorities, ecological benchmark, Novosibirsk Oblast

Issues of Local Government and Municipal Development
Ye.Ye. Goryachenko (, L.V. Deyneko( Problems of Municipal Administration in Russia and Ukraine
This article analyzes problems of municipal administration basing on a survey on a comparative program for municipal managers in Russia and Ukraine. Although the two countries have different social and economic situations, we observe similar weaknesses in local administration. The paper shows how imperfect the current laws and regulations are, because they are limiting the possibilities of local government. We draw a conclusion that it is necessary to devise a science-based concept of municipal reforms which would be relevant to constitutional principles of local government organization and would provide a reliable legal base for municipal administration
Key words: municipal administration, Russia, Ukraine, local government, municipal unit, social and economic assessment

P.L. Kirillov (, A.G. Makhrova( ) Spatial and Hierarchical Differentiation of Accommodation Prices among Russian Cities
The paper identifies a set of key pricing factors for housing accommodations. We use regression analysis to find out cause and effect relationship in the ‘pricing factors – price discrimination’ system. For cities of Russia, indices that determine accommodation prices to a great extent are as follows: retail turnover, salary level and migration gain. Spatial differentiation of housing accommodation prices from the west to the east of Russia rather reflects how the population is spread across the country and how the demographic and economic potential is shifted to the west, than the difference in prices. We show that among the main axes which depict how accommodation prices vary in regions the ‘center–periphery’ line is the most significant one. Center–periphery differentiation is the most pronounced within urban agglomerations where transport accessibility to their kernels forms their own gradient, accentuating other pricing factors. We draw a conclusion that the current spatial disproportions on the Russian accommodation market are defined by the general centralization trend taking place in the country and are subject to the natural center–peripheral model on lower hierarchic levels
Key words: housing accommodations, price, pricing factors, interregional differences, center–periphery differentiation, urban agglomeration

Foreign Experience of Regional Science, Regional Policy and Spatial Development
H.Wollmann( Directions of Development and Incentives for Reform in Municipal Systems of European Countries
The paper analyses ways to develop and premises to reform local self-government in European countries. It shows that the municipal bodies of the European Union have a right to settle issues of self-government. Reforms in municipal government systems have resulted in further decentralization of state power. The ‘dual’ model used in delegation of authorities has led to the fact that cities and villages started to fulfill a series of functions delegated by the state along with their own ones. As a consequence, in a few countries of the EU there have formed quasi-federal structures of municipal government
Key words: local self-government, European Union, Treaty of Lisbon, European Charter of Local Self-Government, competencies of municipal bodies, delegated authorities, control over decision-making

O.I. Yegorov (, O.A. Chigarkina( Regional Specificities of the Oil and Gas Sector Development in Kazakhstan
The article investigates the ways to make the oil and gas complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan more competitive by forming regional clusters. We show which role this direction plays in increasing performance of oil companies and prove the need to create regional clusters based on the available raw material supplies, production and labor potentials
Key words: oil and gas complex, raw potential, complex use of raw material resources, regional clusters

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